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Title of dissertation: The Acquisition of Strategic Knowledge (published by Academic Press, 1989). The dissertation research addresses a critical problem for Artificial Intelligence--knowledge acquisition--with a computer assistant that acquires strategic knowledge from experts.
M.S., Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, February, 1984.
Master's research resulted in the design and implementation of an intelligent communication prosthesis assistant, a computer system which enables people with severe physical disabilities who cannot otherwise speak to communicate in natural language presented in displayed, written, or spoken form.
B.S., Psychology and Computer Science, Loyola University, New Orleans, May, 1981.
Double major, graduated summa cum laude. Designed and implemented a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for programmed-curriculum courses. It was the first of its kind at the university, and is used routinely by the Psychology department for introductory courses.
I've always dreamed of building software that supports organizational intelligence. This company is giving us a chance to deliver.
Senior Project Leader, Enterprise Integration Technologies, November 1994 - May 1995.
Proposed and designed several projects using the Internet to create shared, virtual environments for collaborative learning and work (for ARPA, NASA, NIST). Proposed a business plan for corporate training.
Research Associate, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, 1988-1994.
Principal researcher of the How Things Work project under the direction of Richard Fikes, conducting and managing research in knowledge representation, model formulation, machine-generated explanation, and design rationale capture. Since 1989 has been leading and contributing to several collaborative projects to facilitate the sharing and reuse of formally represent engineering knowledge: chair of working group for the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort, ran the Summer Ontology Project in 1990, organized the Pajaro Dunes Shared KB workshop in 1991, developed the Ontolingua ontology-sharing language, contribute to the PACT project on knowledge sharing in distributed, concurrent engineering, and co-directed the SHADE project on shared knowledge-base technology with Lockheed and EIT. Created and ran the Knowledge Sharing Library, a public resource on the WWW including an electronic library on knowledge sharing technology and a repository of software, knowledge bases, and ontologies. Invented and deployed the first virtual documents on the WWW that generate natural language explanations in response to questions about physical systems (on the WWW September 1993, public debut January 1994).
Research Consultant, Enterprise Integration Technologies, 1993. Designed and developed a widely used tool called Hypermail for turning ordinary email into a group memory on the WWW (1993).
Research Consultant, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Austin, 1989.
Worked with Elaine Rich and Charles Petrie on research in qualitative modeling and automated design using knowledge about assumptions, constraints, and revision strategies.
Instructor, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, 1989-90.
Ran the AI speaker's seminar, CS522.
Professional Training, Professional Seminar, Western Institute of Computer Science, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, July 1989.
Gave two half-day seminars: "Knowledge engineering for expert systems that reason about uncertainty" and "Evaluation in application-oriented Artificial Intelligence."
Research Assistant, Experimental Knowledge Systems Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1986-88.
Worked with Paul Cohen on topics that include reasoning about uncertainty and architectures for knowledge-based systems. Responsibilities included managing professional programmers and consulting on other projects at the laboratory.
Software Engineer, Artificial Intelligence Technology Group, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hudson, Massachusetts, 1983-87.
Began as a summer student in 1983, and then was retained on a part-time and consulting basis. Projects and responsibilities included:
Advanced development. Ongoing responsibility for the design and prototype development of user-interface utilities for AI products. Developed a complete window system for the VS100 workstation/terminal, with all but the device driver written in Lisp. It was used internally to support Lisp development, to design experimental user interfaces, and to build an AI application called the Knowledge-based Test Assistant (KBTA). KBTA helps engineers generate tests for digital circuits. Also developed an input editing environment for interactive Lisp users, called INED, that was used internally for Lisp advanced development. It was incorporated into the VAX Lisp product in 1987.
Product development. Designed and implemented XREF, a program analysis and cross-reference utility which was included with the VAX Lisp product.
External consulting. Provided knowledge engineering expertise to the National Oceanographic and Aeronautics Agency (NOAA) on the design of a rule-based expert system for forecasting severe storms.
Demonstrations. Developed a demonstration system for AI products and represented Digital at several national conferences and trade shows.
AI Consultant, Amerinex Artificial Intelligence, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1987.
Provided technical consultation on knowledge engineering products.
Knowledge Engineer, consulting to the General Electric Corporation, Spring 1984.
Designed and implemented a prototype expert system architecture for controlling a system of distributed radar transmitters and receivers. Also provided general program development tools to support the blackboard architecture for knowledge-based systems. Built a demonstration system for aircraft tracking and identification that used a simple heuristic strategy to minimize transducer vulnerability. Worked with a group of UMass faculty on the design of a production implementation, and trained GE personnel for continued development on the system.
Systems Programmer/Analyst, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Austin, Texas, 1980-82.
Worked for three summers in a coop program. Projects included an application program (designed and implemented a bug-report tracking system) and advanced product development (extended the functionality of full-screen text editors).
Instructor, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, 1991.
CS521: "Design Rationale Capture and Use," fall quarter.
Professional Training, AAAI, Anaheim, July 1991.
Gave the half-day tutorial "Tools for Knowledge Acquisition" with Mark Musen.
Professional Training, AAAI, Boston, July 1990.
Gave the half-day tutorial "Principles and Practice of Knowledge Acquisition" with Mark Musen.
Course Development, Computer Possibilities, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 1986.
Reviewed a videotaped course on Expert Systems and wrote the corresponding chapter in the course book entitled "Foundations of Artificial Intelligence," by Carnegie Group, Inc.
Professional Training, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1986-87.
Prepared and presented lectures on Machine Learning for Digital's ten week AI Training course. Also lectured on AI Languages and Tools for Digital Education Services courses given in England and France.
Professional Training, Professional Seminar, OAC `86, March 1986.
Gave a day-long tutorial entitled "Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems" at a national conference held by the American Federation of Information Processing Societies in Houston, Texas.
Lecturer, Computer Science, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, Spring, 1983.
Taught an undergraduate course on data structures.
Instructor, Psychology, Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1980.
Co-instructed the introductory psychology course as a practicum, with duties including course design, lecturing, and managing research assistants.
Olsen, G. R., Cutkosky, M., Tenenbaum, J. M., & Gruber, T. R. (1994). Collaborative engineering based on knowledge-sharing agreements. American Society for Mechanical Engineering (ASME) International Computers in Engineering conference. Won Best Paper award.
Gruber, T. R., & Olsen, G. R. (1994). An ontology for engineering mathematics. In J. Doyle, P. Torasso, & E. Sandewall (Eds.), Fourth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Gustav Stresemann Institut, Bonn, Germany, Morgan Kaufmann.
Gruber, T. R., & Russell, D. M. (1995). Generative design rationale: Beyond the record and replay paradigm. In T. Moran & J. H. Carroll (Eds.), Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruber, T. R. (1993). Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing. In N. Guarino & R. Poli, (Eds.), International Workshop on Formal Ontology, Padova, Italy. Revised August 1993. To appear in Formal Ontology in Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation, N. Guarino & R. Poli (Eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers. Available as technical report KSL-93-04, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University.
Cutkosky, M., Engelmore, R. S., Fikes, R. E., Gruber, T. R., Genesereth, M. R., Mark, W. S., Tenenbaum, J. M., & Weber, J. C. (1993). PACT: An experiment in integrating concurrent engineering systems. IEEE Computer, 26(1), 28-37.
Gruber, T. R. (1993). A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications. Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2), 199-220.
Gruber, T. R. (1993). Model formulation as a problem-solving task: Computer-assisted Engineering Modeing. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 8(1), 105-128.
McGuire, J. G., Kuokka, D. R., Weber, J. C., Tenenbaum, J. M., Gruber, T. R., & Olsen, G. R. (1993). SHADE: Technology for knowledge-based collaborative engineering. Journal of Concurrent Engineering: Applications and Research (CERA), 1(2).
Gautier, P. O., & Gruber, T. R. (1993). Generating Explanations of Device Behavior Using Compositional Modeling and Causal Ordering. Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Washington, D.C., AAAI Press/The MIT Press.
Gruber, T. R., & Gautier, P. O. (1993). Machine-generated explanations of engineering models: A compositional modeling approach. Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Chambery, France, pages 1502-1508, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Tenenbaum, J. M., Weber, J. C., & Gruber, T. R. (1992). Enterprise Integration: Lessons from PACT and SHADE. In C. Petrie (Eds.), Enterprise Integration Modeling. MIT Press.
Glicksman, J., Weber, J. C., & Gruber, T. R. (1992). The NoteMail Project for Computer Supported Cooperative Mechanical Design. AAAI'92 Design Rationale workshop, Enterprise Integration Technologies.
Gruber, T. R., Tenenbaum, J. M., & Weber, J. C. (1992). Toward a knowledge medium for collaborative product development. In J. S. Gero (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Design '92: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Neches, R., Fikes, R., Finin, T., Gruber, T., Patil, R., Senator, T., & Swartout, W. R. Enabling technology for knowledge sharing. AI Magazine, 12(3):16-36, 1991.
Gruber, T. R. Interactive Acquisition of Justifications: Learning "Why" by Being Told "What." IEEE Expert, 6(4): 65-75, August 1991.
Gruber, T. R, Boose, J., Baudin, C., and Weber, J. Design rationale capture as knowledge acquisition: Tradeoffs in the design of interactive tools. January 1991. In Birnbaum, L., and Collins, G. (Eds.) Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop, June, 1991. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Gruber, T. R. Justification-based knowledge acquisition. Proceedings of the 1990 Pacific Rim Knowledge Acquisition Conference, Tokyo and Kyoto, October 25-31, 1990. OHM-sha publishing company.
Gruber, T. R. Model-based explanation of design rationale. In Proceedings of the AAAI-90 Explanation Workshop, Boston, July 30, 1990. Available as Knowledge Systems Laboratory technical report KSL 90-33.
Boy, G. and Gruber, T. R. Intelligent assistant systems: support for integrated human-machine systems. AAAI Spring Symposium on Knowledge-Based Human-Computer Communication, Stanford University, March 27-29, 1990.
Iwasaki, Y., Doshi, K., Gruber, T., Keller, R., and Low. C. M. Equation model generation: Where do equations come from? Proceedings of the AAAI 1989 Workshop on Model-Based Reasoning, held at the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Detroit, August 20, 1989, 120-123.
Gruber, T. R. Automated knowledge acquisition for strategic knowledge. Machine Learning, 4(3-4): 295-338, 1989. Invited paper in special issue on automated knowledge acquisition.
Gruber, T. R. A method for acquiring strategic knowledge. Knowledge Acquisition, 1(3):255-278, 1989. Earlier version in Proceedings of the Third AAAI Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-based Systems, Banff, Canada, November 6-11, 1988.
Gruber, T. R. & Cohen, P. R. (1989). The design of an automated assistant for acquiring strategic knowledge. Heuristics: The Journal of Knowledge Engineering, 2(2):64-67. Also appeared in SIGART Newsletter, 108:147-151, April 1989 special issue on knowledge acquisition.
Gruber, T. R. Acquiring strategic knowledge from experts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 29:579-597, 1988. Earlier version in Proceedings of the Second AAAI Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems, Banff, Canada, October 18-23, 1987.
Gruber, T. R. and Cohen, P. R. Knowledge engineering tools at the architecture level. Proceedings of the Tenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Milan, Italy, August 23-28, 1987. Earlier version presented at the DARPA Workshop on High Level Tools, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, October 7-8, 1986.
Gruber, T. R. and Cohen, P. R. Principles of design for knowledge acquisition. Proceedings of the Third IEEE Artificial Intelligence Applications Conference, Orlando, Florida, February 23-27, 1987.
Cooley, D., Cohen, P., and Gruber, T. Development of an expert system to diagnose and advise treatment for apple tree root disorders. Phytopathology, 77, 1987.
Cooley, D., Gruber, T., Cohen, P., and Henrion, M. Expert system vs. decision analysis: Comparison in an agricultural domain. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computers in Extension Programs, Orlando, Florida, February 10-11, 1988.
Gruber, T. R. and Cohen, P. R. Design for acquisition: principles of knowledge system design to facilitate knowledge acquisition. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 26(2), 1987, 143-159. Earlier version in Proceedings of the First AAAI Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-based Systems, Banff, Canada, November 3-7, 1986.
Cohen, P. R. and Gruber, T. R. Reasoning about uncertainty: A knowledge representation approach. In Expert Systems: State of the Art Report, J. Fox (Ed.), Berkshire, England: Pergamon Infotech Limited, 1984.
Gruber, T. R., & Gautier, P. O. (1992). Machine-generated Explanations of How Things Work: Integrating Model Formulation, Simulation, and Explanation. , Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University. Presented at the ESPRIT workshop on Explanation, Samos, Greece.
Gruber, T. R. Ontolingua: A mechanism to support portable ontologies. Stanford University, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Technical Report KSL 91-66, November 1991, Revised April 1992.
Gruber, T. R., & Russell, D. M. (1992). Derivation and Use of Design Rationale Information as Expressed by Designers. Technical Report KSL-92-64, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University.
Gruber, T. R. The Role of Common Ontology in Achieving Sharable, Reusable Knowledge Bases. In Allen, J.A., Fikes, R., and Sandewall, E. (Eds.), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Second International Conference. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
Gruber, T. R. The Development of Large, Shared Knowledge-Bases: Collaborative Activities at Stanford. Technical Report KSL 90-62, March-July 1990.
Gruber, T. R. and Russell, D. M. Design knowledge and design rationale: A framework for representation, capture, and use. Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory technical report KSL 90-45, 1990.
Gruber, T. R. The development of large, shared knowledge bases: Collaborative activities at Stanford. Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory technical report KSL 90-62, August 1990.
Gruber, T. R. XREF: A case study in Common Lisp portability. Lisp Pointers, 1(1), April-May, 1987. Earlier version available as Artificial Intelligence Technology Group technical report TR-011, Digital Equipment Corporation, Marlboro, Massachusetts.
Gruber, T. R. Guidelines for knowledge engineering in rule-based systems. Artificial Intelligence Technology Group technical report TR-001, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hudson, Massachusetts, September 1985.
Gruber, T. R. Toward inductive analysis of path endorsements. EKSL Memo 85-1, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, June 1985.
Gruber, T. R. Uncertainty in knowledge-based reasoning. EKSL Memo 85-2, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, January 1985.
Gruber, T. R., Kulikowski, S., and Hawkins, B. An intelligent communication prosthesis system. Technical Report COINS 84-22, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, 1984.
"Common Ontologies for Knowledge Sharing." Panel at the Eigth IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, Monterey, March 4, 1992.
"The DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort." Overview of the technical strategy, activities, and current results of the KS effort. By invitation to the ISO PDES standards organization, Houston, October 24, 1991.
"Design Rationale Capture as Knowledge Acquisition: Balance between Automation and Interactivity." Panel at the International Machine Learning Workshop, June 28, 1991.
"Activities of the DARPA Working Group on Shared, Reusable Knowledge Bases." Panel at Second International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Cambridge, MA, April 24, 1991.
"The role of common ontology in achieving sharable, reusable knowledge bases." Panel at Second International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Cambridge, MA, April 23, 1991.
"Knowledge Sharing and the Role of Common Ontology." Panel at the Seventh IEEE Conference on AI Applications (CAIA `91), February 26, 1991.
"Is Qualitative Physics Practical?" Panel at the Seventh IEEE Conference on AI Applications (CAIA `91), February 26, 1991.
"In Search of Common Knowledge about How Things Work: A Case Study in Collaborative Representation Design." AI speaker's Seminar, Stanford University, January 11, 1991.
"Justification-based Knowledge Acquisition." Invited lecture (90 minutes) at the First Japanese Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop (JKAW '90), Kyoto and Hatoyama, Japan, October 25-31, 1990. Also participated on panels during the closed sessions of the workshop.
"Explanations for Design Rationale Capture and Use." Panel of the AAAI-90 Workshop on Explanation, Boston, July 30, 1990.
"The Use of Formally-Represented Engineering Knowledge to Support Human Communication and Memory." Presentation at a panel of the 1990 AAAI Spring Symposium workshop on Knowledge-Based Human-Computer Communication, Stanford, March 27-29, 1990. Paper available as technical report KSL 89-87.
"The Role of Knowledge Representation Standards for Sharing Knowledge Based Technology." Invited paper and talk at the DARPA and NSF-sponsored Knowledge Representation Standards workshop, March 5-7, 1990, Santa Barbara. Co-chaired the working group on generic, reusable knowledge bases. Updated presentation to international ESPRIT/DARPA Knowledge Representation Standards workshop, Brussels, Belgium, July 16-18, 1990.
"Justification-based knowledge acquisition." Invited talk at IntelliCorp, October 19, 1989.
"The acquisition of design knowledge." Panel at the fourth AAAI Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-based Systems Workshop, Banff, Canada, October 1989.
"Integrated human-machine modeling." Chair of committee of the same name at the 1989 Knowledge Acquisition Workshop.
"The development of large, multi-use knowledge bases." Invited talk at the University of Massachusetts, May 29, 1989.
"Integration of machine learning and knowledge acquisition." Presented report of working group at the Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, Banff, Canada, October 1988.
Common Lisp standards, delegate to first CL conference, Monterrey, September 1984.
IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, 1990-91, Organized Panels on Shared reusable Knowledge Bases.
International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), reviewer in several annual conferences.
International Machine Learning Workshop, 1991, Co-chair of Knowledge Acquisition and Automated Machine Learning Track. Organized panel on Design Rationale Capture.
Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-based Systems Workshops, member of program committee and reviewer for annual conferences in Canada, Japan, and Europe.
National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), program committee and reviewer for several annual conferences.
American Association for Artificial Intelligence, member.
Association for Computing Machinery (SIGART, SIGCAPH), member.
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Palo Alto chapter Steering Committee.
Computer Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, member.
ARPA Knowledge Representation Standards advisory committee, co-chair of working group on Shared, Reusable Knowledge Bases. Organized the Summer Ontology Project at Stanford in the summer of 1990, which was a multi-institutional, multidisciplinary experiment in the collaborative design of a shared ontology for engineering models. Organized a national, DARPA-sponsored workshop on knowledge sharing and reuse at Pajaro Dunes, CA, March 1991. Participated in the design of KIF, which is now in the draft standards process for ANSI.
Member of journal editorial boards:
Internation Journal of Human-Computer Studies
Referee for journals:
Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing
Communications of the ACM
Future Computing Systems
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies