Reference: Larsson, J. E. Model-Based Diagnosis of the Human Body. Knowledge Systems Laboratory, January, 1995.
Abstract: This paper describes the use of explicit models of goals and functions for monitoring and diagnosis of intensive-care unit patients. The method is based on multilevel flow models, (MFM), and used in the Guardian system. The use of MFM makes it possible to provide the system with alarm analysis, fault diagnosis, and generation of explanations, subject to strict demands of meeting hard real-time deadlines.
Full paper available as ps.